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      Stitch in time: 18 fascinating facts about the history of sutures
      Early Sutures

      Stitch in time: 18 fascinating facts about the history of sutures

      From their use in Ancient Egypt (really!) to later innovations like topical skin adhesives, sutures have a long history of saving lives—a story Johnson & Johnson’s been part of since the 1800s.

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      Johnson & Johnson has been a pioneer in wound healing for almost 130 years, ever since the company created the world’s first mass-produced sterile sutures in 1887.

      We haven’t rested on our laurels since then, either. We’ve kept innovating in the sutures space well into the 20th century, which has helped to transform surgery and elevate standards of care. (Fun fact: Ethicon, a Johnson & Johnson company, makes enough sutures each year to wrap around the world six times!)

      We trace the fascinating story behind how sutures were created many (many) years ago, and how they became an indelible part of our company’s history—and future.
      • 30,000 BC Eyed Needles
        30,000 BC Eyed Needles
        Didier Descouens / the Museum Collection of Toulouse
        30,000 BC

        Eyed needles make a debut

        The first eyed needles appear to have been used both for surgery and to tie wounds together during this time, according to the fossilized remains of Neolithic skulls.
      • Galen of Pergamon
        Galen of Pergamon
        Wellcome Library, London
        1600 BC

        Catgut becomes a suture staple

        Greek surgeon Galen of Pergamon notes that he uses silk or catgut (made from the twisted intestines of sheep or horses) to suture together gladiators’ severed tendons. Similar materials are used for sutures well into the 20th century.
      • A photo of Egyptian hieroglyphics
        AD 150

        The first known sutures are used in Egyptian times

        Egyptian records reveal the first historical reference to sutures being used to treat a shoulder: “Thou shouldst draw together for him his gash with stitching.”
      • British surgeon Sir Joseph Lister
        Image courtesy of Johnson & Johnson Archives

        A fateful speech changes the future of surgery

        British surgeon Sir Joseph Lister—who helped introduce the concept of antiseptic surgery—gives a presentation at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition’s Medical Congress that inspires medicated plaster maker Robert Wood Johnson to start Johnson & Johnson, aimed at furthering the cause of sterile surgery. “In those times, surgeons used to operate in their street clothes, and would carry the same instruments and dressings from patient to patient, not even cleaning them in between use,” says Margaret Gurowitz, Chief Historian at Johnson & Johnson.
      • A tin of the first mass-produced sterile sutures
        Image courtesy: Johnson & Johnson Archives

        The first mass-produced sterile sutures are invented

        Johnson & Johnson starts manufacturing sterile sutures (made of either catgut or silk), surgical dressings, cotton and gauze. “This helped usher in the beginnings of modern antiseptic surgery,” Gurowitz says, “and, as a result, patient survival rates in American hospitals skyrocketed.”
      • Eyeless needle sutures from Ethicon
        Image courtesy: Johnson & Johnson Archives

        Mersutures debut

        Scottish pharmacist George Merson, who runs a suture manufacturing company, develops eyeless needled sutures with a single strand of material pre-attached through the butt of the needle. This invention greatly reduces tissue damage caused by pulling double strands through the skin.
      • An early Ethicon office building
        Image courtesy: Johnson & Johnson Archives

        Ethicon Suture Laboratories is formed

        Johnson & Johnson acquires Merson’s company and absorbs it into the company’s existing suture business, renaming the new conglomerate Ethicon Suture Laboratories. In 1953, the name is changed to Ethicon Inc.
      • Heritage_Sutures_Sterilized Ligapak 1080
        Image courtesy: Ethicon Archives

        Ethicon introduces sterilization by irradiation

        The company creates technology that allows sutures to be sterilized by bombarding them with radiation. This is heralded as a breakthrough because it allows sutures to be sterilized once already sealed in their final packaging, ensuring bacteria stays out.
      • A package of Prolene® Polypropylene Sutures
        Image courtesy: Ethicon Archives

        Prolene® Polypropylene Sutures are invented

        Ethicon unveils a synthetic sterile suture made from the polymer polypropylene—and, to date, it remains the gold standard for cardiac bypass surgery. “It’s still a favorite for cardiovascular surgeons because it stretches easily and doesn’t tear,” says Liza Ovington, Ph.D., Franchise Medical Director for Ethicon.
      • Vicryl, a synthetic suture from Ethicon
        Image courtesy: Ethicon Archives

        Vicryl® Sutures enter the market

        Ethicon introduces Vicryl, a synthetic suture that can be naturally absorbed into the skin. It’s also braided, making it stronger and more pliable.
      • A coated version of Vicryl® sutures
        Image courtesy: Ethicon Archives

        A coated version of Vicryl® sutures is created

        A simple addition to Vicryl makes the suture even safer to use: “The coating helped surgeons’ knots slide down more easily and stay put when they were tying the sutures, and reduced trauma to surrounding tissue,” Ovington says.
      • PDS® II sutures
        Image courtesy: Ethicon Archives

        PDS® II sutures debut

        Ethicon creates sutures made of polydioxanone that are designed to close fascia, the connective tissue beneath the skin. “When performing an operation, surgeons think about tissue in layers: first, there’s the skin, then the fascia, and then the actual organ,” Ovington explains. “Since fascia heals more slowly, we wanted to create a product that would keep its strength for about six weeks, compared to the three to four weeks offered by Vicryl, to provide longer-lasting support.”
      • Monocryl® sutures
        Image courtesy: Ethicon Archives

        Monocryl® sutures are introduced

        The suture, designed specifically for skin, provides even more secure skin closure and prevents wound edges from separating, which can lead to infection and scarring. Thanks to Monocryl’s high initial strength, it keeps wounds pulled together tightly during the critical first few days of skin healing.
      • Dermabond® Topical Skin Adhesive®
        Image courtesy of Ethicon

        Topical skin adhesives hit the market

        The first FDA-cleared topical skin adhesive in the U.S., Dermabond® Topical Skin Adhesive®, paves the way for a new generation of skin-closure solutions. “It provides a mechanical barrier to infection when applied to the incision,” Ovington explains. In vitro data shows that, when used in tandem with deep dermal sutures, Dermabond Adhesive adds more strength in closing wounds, provides a microbial barrier for at least 72 hours against bacteria responsible for surgical site infections, and can even inhibit such antibiotic-resistant bacteria as MRSA.
      • Ethicon’s Vicryl® Sutures—Synthetic Sutures That Can Be Naturally Absorbed Into the Skin
        Image courtesy of Ethicon Archives

        Coated Vicryl® Plus Antibacterial Sutures are introduced

        This suture—the first antibacterial version made commercially available with triclosan, which prevents bacteria from congregating on the suture—is shown to significantly reduce the risk of developing a surgical site infection by almost a third.
      • Everpoint® Cardiovascular Needles
        Image courtesy: Ethicon

        Everpoint® Cardiovascular Needles debut

        The needles, made with one of the world’s strongest metal alloys, mark a significant departure from the stainless-steel needles of the past, providing more sharpness, strength and bend-resistance. “Patients with heart disease today often have more calcium deposits in their arteries, and thus require tougher needles to get through all the calcified tissue,” Ovington says, adding that they’re also smaller and thinner, helping minimize tissue trauma and bleeding.
      • Stratafix Suture
        Stratafix Suture
        Image courtesy: Ethicon

        Stratafix™ Knotless Tissue Control Devices launch

        The suture, designed with anchors along the length of the string, transforms surgery. Prior to its invention, surgeons sutured together tissues by creating individual loops, then knotting them off—a cumbersome and time-consuming process that can lead to complications. Since Stratafix has multiple points of fixation, it removes the need for knots and enables for more efficiency and strength than traditional suturing. “It’s like a zipper bringing tissue together and holding it everywhere, compared to just a couple of buttons,” Ovington explains.
      • Dermabond® Prineo® Skin Closure System

        Dermabond® Prineo® Skin Closure System debuts

        This technology is even stronger than surgical sutures or staples, provides a protected closure and is associated with high patient satisfaction.

      When you’ve been innovating for over 135 years …

      Johnson & Johnson has a virtual museum where you can learn more fun facts about its rich history.

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